Today the most common cause of blindness from drinking is methanol. Methanol, otherwise known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, can damage the optic nerve and even kill you in high concentrations. During Prohibition, bootleggers were known to sell moonshine that contained methanol, and the practice continues abroad.
- And then there is the real cause of moonshine blindness. Moonshine blindness can occur when someone consumes too much methanol. When methanol is consumed, it is changed into formaldehyde and is known as methanol poisoning. Methanol poisoning can cause damage to your eyes and can even result in blindness in severe cases.
- 1 How does bad moonshine make you blind?
- 2 What happens if you get moonshine in your eye?
- 3 What happens when you drink too much moonshine?
- 4 Does alcohol cause blindness?
- 5 Is methanol blindness permanent?
- 6 Is moonshine safe to drink?
- 7 Can you go blind from hand sanitizer in your eye?
- 8 Why was moonshine made illegal?
- 9 Can you get sick from homemade moonshine?
- 10 How do you know if you drink bad moonshine?
- 11 What is illegal moonshine?
- 12 How do you get rid of alcohol eyes?
- 13 Which alcohol is good for eyes?
- 14 FYI: Can Drinking Moonshine Really Make Me Go Blind?
- 15 Can moonshine make you blind? – Truth vs. Myth
- 16 Methanol Toxicity
- 17 So, if my wash alone doesn’t have much methanol in it, why should I care so much about it?
- 18 Will Drinking Moonshine Make You Go Blind?
- 19 Can You Really Go Blind from Drinking Moonshine? / Health
- 20 }
- 21 How to Avoid Moonshine Blindness
- 22 What are the Dangers of Drinking Moonshine?
- 23 What is Moonshine Blindness?
- 24 Can you really go blind from moonshine?
- 25 Is Making Moonshine Dangerous?
- 26 Is Drinking Moonshine Dangerous?
- 27 Why does methanol make you blind?
- 28 Can Rubbing Alcohol Blind you?
- 29 So How do you Avoid Moonshine Blindness?
- 30 Methanol – Will Moonshine Make You Blind?
- 31 Methanol Toxicity
- 32 How to Remove Methanol from Moonshine
- 33 Can Moonshine Make You Go Blind?
- 34 What causes methanol in moonshine?
- 35 Does eyesight improve after quitting drinking?
- 36 Can a blind person ever see again?
- 37 Can cheap vodka make you blind?
- 38 How do you not go blind from moonshine?
- 39 How do I know if my moonshine is safe to drink?
- 40 Does moonshine go bad?
- 41 How many beers is a shot of moonshine?
- 42 What is proof of moonshine?
- 43 How do u know if ur going blind?
- 44 Why do blind people wear sunglasses?
- 45 How much moonshine will make you go blind?
- 46 How can moonshine cause blindness?
- 47 Can blindness be cured?
- 48 What does moonshine do to your body?
- 49 Can you drink the heads of moonshine?
- 50 Is home distilling dangerous?
- 51 What is the difference between vodka and moonshine?
- 52 Can bad moonshine make you go blind?
- 53 The Dangers Of Moonshine
- 54 Moonshine’s Gone Legit But It Still Is Dangerous
- 55 What Is Moonshine?
- 56 Impact of Moonshine
- 57 Potential Dangers
- 58 How to Test for Purity
- 59 History of Moonshine
- 60 Fact or Fiction: Can Drinking Moonshine Cause Blindness? on MoonshineDVD.com
- 61 Can Moonshine Cause Blindness?
- 62 Methanol
- 63 How To Protect Against Methanol
- 64 Will moonshine make you go blind?
- 65 The History of Poisoned Alcohol Includes an Unlikely Culprit: The U.S. Government
How does bad moonshine make you blind?
Bruce Goldberger, professor and director of toxicology at the University of Florida College of Medicine. “But just a few ounces of methanol can kill. So one effect is someone becomes permanently blind due to the effect of methanol on the optic nerve.
What happens if you get moonshine in your eye?
Adverse effects. Vodka eyeballing can cause corneal abrasions and scarring, promote angiogenesis in the eye (and thereby cause loss of vision), and increase the risk for eye infections, and has been condemned by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
What happens when you drink too much moonshine?
Consuming too much alcohol — even the “safe” kind — can cause alcohol poisoning, affecting heart rate and breathing and even leading to coma and death, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Does alcohol cause blindness?
Alcohol and Eyesight Loss Blindness caused by alcohol isn’t common, but it’s possible. Unhealthy amounts of alcohol consumption can lead to a decrease in peripheral vision, weakened eye muscles, a thinning of the cornea, and loss of color vision—all things that can lead to permanent vision loss.
Is methanol blindness permanent?
Methanol intoxication can cause severe visual dysfunction and death. Indeed, small amounts of ingested methanol are sufficient to produce acute destruction of parts of the central nervous system leading to permanent neurological dysfunction and irreversible blindness.
Is moonshine safe to drink?
Illegal moonshine remains dangerous because it is mostly brewed in makeshift stills. It can be dangerous on two levels, both during the distilling process and when consuming it.
Can you go blind from hand sanitizer in your eye?
In recent months, there has been an increase in reports of eye emergencies associated with hand sanitizer, specifically alcohol-based hand sanitizer accidentally getting squirt or rubbed into the eyes. This can be quite dangerous if not handled correctly, and even lead to vision loss.
Why was moonshine made illegal?
So why is moonshine still illegal? Because the liquor is worth more to the government than beer or wine. Uncle Sam takes an excise tax of $2.14 for each 750-milliliter bottle of 80-proof spirits, compared with 21 cents for a bottle of wine (of 14 percent alcohol or less) and 5 cents for a can of beer.
Can you get sick from homemade moonshine?
Even contaminated homebrewed beer can’t make you sick, he said. “There are no known pathogens that can survive in beer because of the alcohol and low pH,” Glass said. “So you can’t really get photogenically sick from drinking bad homebrew. It could taste bad, but it’s not going to hurt you.”
How do you know if you drink bad moonshine?
Alcohol poisoning signs and symptoms include:
- Slow breathing (less than eight breaths a minute)
- Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths)
- Blue-tinged skin or pale skin.
- Low body temperature (hypothermia)
- Passing out (unconsciousness) and can’t be awakened.
What is illegal moonshine?
Moonshine is high-proof liquor that was and continues to be produced illicitly, without government authorization. The name was derived from a tradition of creating the alcohol during the nighttime, thereby avoiding detection. Distilling such spirits outside a registered distillery remains illegal in most countries.
How do you get rid of alcohol eyes?
REMEDIES FOR BLOODSHOT EYES
- 1) Cold Spoon Compress. This one is a super easy hack you can pull off almost anywhere.
- 2) Cold Bread Press.
- 3) Witch Hazel.
- 4) Chamomile And Fennel Eye Bath.
- 5) Baking Soda Rinse.
- 6) Apple Cider Vinegar.
Which alcohol is good for eyes?
Beer, our ertswhile companion, apparently contains powerful anti-oxidants thatmay reduce the risk of cataracts and heart disease, according to two newstudies.
FYI: Can Drinking Moonshine Really Make Me Go Blind?
The simple answer is that it is possible to go blind as a result of consuming moonshine. However, looking at the sun has the potential to cause blindness. The most essential thing to remember while consuming alcoholic beverages of the home-brewed sort is to use your best judgement. The notion that moonshine or other home-distilled liquors might induce blindness is based in fact, but it’s vital to distinguish between the causes of that blindness and the alcohol distillation process itself in order to avoid confusion.
Methanol is a byproduct of alcohol distillation, but it only occurs in minute, non-toxic levels during ordinary distillation, and it is easy to separate and discard from the initial few ounces of alcohol that drip from the condenser during the first few minutes of distillation.
Methanol is one of the chemicals (along with acetone, aldehydes, and other undesirables) that may be found in perfectly excellent moonshine and can add unappealing tastes to it.
As a result, where exactly does the methanol that causes blindness originate?
- Methanol, commonly known as wood alcohol, is an inexpensive alcoholic beverage with physiological effects that are similar to those of ethanol, at least at the outset.
- And when they do, the consequences might range from mildly ill to fatally fatal in nature.
- It’s possible that optic nerve injury will turn out to be the least of your concerns.
- Bruce Goldberger, professor and director of toxicology at the University of Florida College of Medicine.
- As a result of the action of methanol on the optic nerve, one of the consequences is that someone becomes permanently blind.
- However, methanol is not the only hazard associated with consuming spirits from an unknown source.
- Nothing beats the effectiveness of a truck radiator submerged in the substance when producing big volumes of clandestine stills.
- Glycol compounds derived from antifreeze have also been discovered in batches of moonshine.
- It is not recommended that you acquire or consume unregulated (and perhaps illegal) spirits, but if you really must experiment with handmade booze, make certain that you can trust the distiller you are working with (or, alternatively, study up and make the stuff yourself).
When it comes to home-distilled spirits, the rule of thumb is “buyer beware,” just as it is with so many other things.
Can moonshine make you blind? – Truth vs. Myth
Basically, drinking moonshine can cause you to go blind. That’s the short explanation, anyhow. Staring at the sun, on the other hand, can cause blindness. Keep in mind that common sense should be your guide when consuming alcoholic beverages of the home-brewed sort. Moonshine and other home-distilled liquors have been linked to blindness in the past, and this is a valid concern. However, it is critical to distinguish between the causes of blindness and the alcohol distillation process itself.
- During ordinary distillation, methanol is produced as a byproduct, but it is only present in minute, non-toxic concentrations, and it is easy to separate and discard from the first few ounces of distilled alcohol that drop from the condenser.
- In order to eliminate methanol (which, by the way, may cause unpleasant hangovers in tiny amounts), any distiller worth his salt will remove these ingredients at the beginning of the process.
- What you should be concerned about is the distiller rather than the whiskey itself.
- Methanol is actually added to the product by unscrupulous moonshiners in order to increase the strength.
- However, as the body metabolizes everything, the effects of methanol may be extremely detrimental to the consumer’s health just a few hours after use.
- The University of Florida College of Medicine’s Dr.
- “It’s extremely poisonous, and even a small amount–10 milliliters of pure methanol can cause blindness,” he adds.
- In contrast, the second is that it is just fatal to the organism in terms of its physiological effects.” So it was in India’s West Bengal state, when 168 people died after drinking moonshine that had been poisoned with methanol only a year before.
- Large-scale production of moonshine for distribution is not made possible by the copper coils that are commonly employed as condensers in the distillation process.
- In addition to its solvent properties, alcohol will leach a wide range of substances from a radiator, including lead salts, which can result in lead poisoning if consumed in large quantities.
That is another way of stating that while the distillation process is intrinsically safe (and may be made even safer by eliminating any trace methanol that may have generated early in the process), there are a variety of extrinsic circumstances that might make the end product harmful to drink.
When it comes to home-distilled spirits, the rule of thumb is “buyer beware,” just as it is with so many other products.
The simple answer is that it is possible to go blind as a result of drinking moonshine. However, looking at the sun can cause blindness in certain people. The most essential thing to remember when consuming alcoholic beverages of the homemade sort is to use your common sense. Even while the notion that moonshine or other home-distilled liquors might induce blindness is based in fact, it’s crucial to distinguish between the causes of that blindness and the process of alcohol distillation itself.
- During ordinary distillation, methanol is produced as a byproduct, but it is only present in minute, non-toxic concentrations, and it is easy to separate and discard from the first few ounces of alcohol that drop from the condenser.
- Methanol is one of the chemicals (along with acetone, aldehydes, and other undesirables) that may be found in perfectly excellent moonshine and can add unappetizing tastes to it.
- So, what is the source of the methanol that causes blindness?
- Methanol, commonly known as wood alcohol, is an inexpensive substance with physiological effects that are similar to those of ethanol, at least initially.
- And when they do, the consequences might range from mildly ill to fatally fatal.
- Optic nerve injury may turn out to be the least of your concerns.
- Bruce Goldberger, professor and director of toxicology at the University of Florida College of Medicine.
As a result of the impact of methanol on the optic nerve, one of the side effects is that someone becomes permanently blind.
However, methanol isn’t the only hazard that comes with drinking spirits from an unknown source.
Nothing beats a truck radiator buried in the substance when it comes to large-scale clandestine still production.
Glycol compounds from antifreeze have also been found in some batches of moonshine.
PopSci does not recommend the purchase or drinking of unregulated (and probably illegal) spirits, but if you really must experiment with handmade booze, make certain that you can trust the distiller (or, alternatively, study up and make the stuff yourself).
When it comes to home-distilled spirits, the rule of thumb is “buyer beware,” just like it is with so many other things.
How does Methanol end up in my wash?
Methanol is an organic chemical that may be found in naturally occurring quantities in various fruits and vegetables, among other things. This compound can also be created as a by-product by the yeast during the fermentation process, which occurs most frequently in fruit washes with a high pectin concentration (you can use apectic enzymeto try and remove as much of the pectin as possible). Because methanol is a naturally occurring compound, however, it can be found in both beer and wine, which contributes to the urban legend about moonshine’s dangers.
It is clear from the examples above that if you are distilling a fruit-based wash, it has the potential to contain far more methanol.
If wine/beer have methanol in them also, why do people make such a big deal out of moonshine?
The main difference is that methanol in beer or wine is equally distributed throughout the batch, whereas distillers are effectively concentrating the majority of the methanol in their batch into the first few milliliters that come out of the still after it has been distilled. Because the boiling point of methanol (148.5° F) is significantly lower than the boiling point of ethanol (173.1° F), it boils off at the beginning of the run and leaves everything behind, in the same way that the boiling point of ethanol boils off in the middle of the run and leaves everything else behind.
- The initial few drippings from your still are referred to as “foreshots.” As a result, most distillers just pour the first 50 milliliters of wash per 5 gallons of wash down the sink (or set it aside to clean with).
- A person comes along every now and then who is only concerned with the quantity of profit they are earning rather than the quality of the goods they are manufacturing.
- One method by which they accomplish this is by adding rubbing alcohol.
- Are you seeing where this is going?
So, if my wash alone doesn’t have much methanol in it, why should I care so much about it?
Methanol is one of the primary components of alcoholic drinks that contributes to the development of severe hangovers. Consider the following example:-Have you ever noticed how awful red wine hangovers can be? Now peek back up at the methanol concentrations I indicated above…. – Notice how the hangovers from high-quality vodka aren’t nearly as awful as they could be? Because they are obsessed with quality, it is likely that they are doing an excellent job of eliminating all of the undesirable elements.
A word of caution: There was once a batch of gin that was really excellent and resulted in virtually no hangover the next day. But believe me when I say that you may absolutely drink too much of it….
Will Drinking Moonshine Make You Go Blind?
In 1919, in anticipation of Prohibition’s coming demise, the pioneering New York toxicologist Alexander Gettler alerted authorities to an increase in the number of home-brewed stills being built across the country. This was a source of concern. Among the things Gettler was concerned about was an epidemic of blindness, according to Deborah Blum, author of The Poisoner’s Handbook: Murder and the Birth of Forensic Medicine in Jazz Age New York, which includes an account of Gettler’s life. “That did, in fact, occur throughout the 1920s.” It is true that the intake of homemade booze caused tens of thousands of people to lose their sight or become paralyzed between 1920 and 1933.
- Yes, it is true that moonshine may cause your lights to go out.
- The answer is as simple as CH 3 OH, often known as methanol.
- However, this does not imply that you are a weak person.
- Methanol has a color and odor that are very similar to ethanol, which is the kind of alcohol that is safe for humans to consume.
- The explanation for the toxicity of methanol is related to human metabolism.
- Formaldehyde, on the other hand, is formed when methanol is converted to formaldehyde.
Methanol is a naturally occurring byproduct of the distillation process that is typically eliminated from liquor.
A still might also be made of inferior materials, enabling harmful compounds such as lead, which has been linked to blindness, to seep into the chamber and cause damage.
As a result, Blum, who grew up in Georgia and Louisiana, recalls a family motto that her father lived by: “Know your’shiner.’ ” You’ll also want to know what is being distilled in the first place.
When it comes to distilling, corn mash was traditionally utilized, but any organic substance can be employed—one infamous example from the Prohibition era featured shiners in Tennessee who were caught distilling poison ivy.
Today, moonshine is lawful to create in the United States with the payment of a small charge and a specific license; occurrences of the type that occurred in the past are few and far between.
One unfortunate catastrophe in Mumbai resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people due to a faulty batch of booze. Keep in mind that “unless the source is credible,” advises Goldberger, “you should exercise caution while consuming moonshine.”
Can You Really Go Blind from Drinking Moonshine? / Health
As Prohibition neared its end, the pioneering New York toxicologist Alexander Gettler alerted authorities to an increase in the number of home-brewed stills being built around the country. What a source of concern! According to Deborah Blum, author of The Poisoner’s Handbook: Murder and the Birth of Forensic Medicine in Jazz Age New York, a book about Gettler, “one of the things he was most concerned about was an epidemic of blindness.” “That did, in fact, take place throughout the 1920s. It is true that the intake of homemade booze caused tens of thousands of people to become paralyzed or blind between 1920 and 1933.
- The truth is that drinking moonshine might cause your lights to go out completely.
- Methanol, also known as CH 3 OH, is an excellent example of a chemical compound.
- However, this does not imply a lack of strength.
- Bruce Goldberger, chief of forensic medicine and director of toxicology at the University of Florida’s College of Medicine, claims that consuming just ten milliliters of methanol can result in lifelong blindness.
- One caveat, though, according to Goldberger, is that “if you consume as much methanol as ethanol, you will perish.” Being meticulous is advantageous in this situation.
- The body breaks down the ethanol that is eaten into two innocuous compounds: carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide (H 2 O ).
- A portion of our neurological system that is attacked by this toxin is the optic nerve, which is one of the first areas to be affected.
Nevertheless, mistakes do happen—a substandard polisher can leave it in unintentionally by accident.
Keeping track of the source of your moonshine is critical to consume it safely.
In the late eighteenth century, Scots-Irish fled to the Appalachian mountains, bringing their liquor recipes with them.
When it comes to distilling, corn mash was traditionally employed, but any organic material may be utilized—one infamous example from the Prohibition era featured shiners in Tennessee who were caught distilling poison ivy.
Today, moonshine is lawful to create in the United States with the payment of a small charge and a specific permission; nevertheless, events of the type that occurred in the past are few and far between.
The result of a faulty batch of booze in Mumbai resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people. Keep in mind that “unless the source is credible,” advises Goldberger, “you should exercise caution while consuming moonshine.
Prohibition, which was intended to prohibit the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages, instead encouraged Americans to make their own booze and rumrunners to sneak illegal narcotics into the country. It was also the decade of the 1920s, which was characterized by lawlessness and a thriving bootlegging industry. Moonshine, often known as “hooch,” was a type of illegally made alcohol that was said to as the “original” “Mountain Dew.” The alcohol was extracted by the use of a still.
Methanol consumption as a result of drinking moonshine has been known for many years to cause blindness.
When methanol is eaten, it undergoes a transformation into formaldehyde, which can cause damage to the eyes and, in severe cases, blindness in the affected individuals.
The myth that drinking moonshine will cause you to become blind is unfounded, and the false concerns about methanol in moonshine were further exacerbated by some bootleggers who purposefully put antifreeze such as methanol in their product to reduce the amount of alcohol in order to make more money.
- Some bootleggers utilized vehicle radiators that had been tainted with lead as condensers in their alcohol distillation operations.
- Fortunately, lead-free solder is used in the construction of modern whiskey stills, reducing the risk of a potential health concern.
- The experiences of Prohibition served as the foundation for the development of superior distillation processes in modern times.
- This collection of procedures ensures that the moonshine is safe for human consumption after it has been produced.
How to Avoid Moonshine Blindness
Making moonshine has a long history, which causes many people to be hesitant about eating it. Find out how to prevent becoming blinded by moonshine. Despite the fact that manufacturing moonshine is frequently a pleasurable hobby that enables people feel more connected to their ancestors, it is not without its risks.
It is imperative that you proceed with extreme caution when consuming alcoholic beverages. There are a number of risks associated with the preparation and use of these delectable beverages.
What are the Dangers of Drinking Moonshine?
These are some of the most prevalent dangers linked with drinking, and they include the actions that might occur when there is a breakdown in judgment. Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is an example of this. When you are inebriated, your judgment is impaired, it is difficult for many people to remain awake and aware, and your response or reflex time is significantly slowed. These side effects of excessive alcohol use can have devastating results. Alcoholism is another prevalent danger related with the consumption of alcoholic drinks.
There are a few more bad effects of consuming alcohol and moonshine that you should be aware of if you want to avoid them.
What is Moonshine Blindness?
These are some of the most prevalent dangers linked with drinking, and they include the actions that might occur when one’s judgement is impaired by alcohol. Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is one such case. Intoxication impairs decision-making, makes it difficult for many people to remain awake and aware, and causes a significant slowing of reaction and reflexes in the body. In many cases, the repercussions of excessive alcohol use are disastrous. Addiction to alcoholic beverages is another prevalent concern connected with them.
There are a few more bad effects of consuming alcohol and moonshine that you should be aware of if you plan on doing so.
Can you really go blind from moonshine?
It used to be a major concern that you may go moonshine blind from drinking too much. Moonshiners were not aware that the first few ounces of liquid that emerged from the distiller should be discarded back in the day when their craft was still being refined. Heads are the first chunks of liquid that appear and contain methanol, and they must be thrown out immediately! It is quite crucial for both your safety and the quality of the product, and the remainder of the alcohol that follows will be absolutely safe to consume.
As you may guess, anyone who consumes these beverages would suffer disastrous consequences as a result of this procedure.
These radiators were coated with lead, which resulted in the pollution of the water supply with lead.
Modern moonshine kettles and brewing procedures, on the other hand, are fairly sophisticated. When following good brewing methods and using common sense, there is very little chance of being ill from methanol poisoning.
Is Making Moonshine Dangerous?
The process of making your own moonshine can be hazardous if you do not use the proper equipment and procedures. Copper and stainless steel are the most common materials used in the best brewing kettles. While your goods are distilling, these metals do not produce any bad responses, and copper absorbs some of the harmful pollutants, resulting in a more cleaner and healthier moonshine. If you decide to attempt to create your own kettle or thump keg, you need exercise extreme caution to avoid using the incorrect materials (car radiators, for example).
For additional information on how to fractionate your booze, see our how to create moonshine guide for more information.
Is Drinking Moonshine Dangerous?
Because all alcoholic beverages contain varying quantities of ethanol, they can all be harmful to your health in some way. People’s bodies are just incredibly adept at detoxing and eliminating ethanol from their bloodstreams, which is why we can enjoy these delectable beverages without becoming ill. Alcohol poisoning is a possibility with every type of alcoholic beverage, regardless of how much you drink. This is due to the possibility that your liver may have difficulty breaking down ethanol and will convert it to acetaldehyde.
It is recommended that you drink in moderation to avoid alcohol poisoning or lasting liver damage.
The effects of alcohol poisoning might be severe if your liver is incapable of breaking down the ethanol in your bloodstream.
Why does methanol make you blind?
Methanol is very hazardous to humans and must be avoided at all costs. You can get formic acid by consuming large amounts of methanol, which your body turns into formic acid. Formic acid has the ability to interfere with the operation of certain cells and even prevent them from functioning. Ten milliliters of pure methanol has a high likelihood of causing serious damage to your visual nerves, which might result in permanent blindness. Consuming 15mL of methanol has the potential to be lethal.
Can Rubbing Alcohol Blind you?
Yes, rubbing alcohol has the potential to cause blindness. Rubbing alcohol is available in a variety of strengths. The chemical compound ethanol is a sort of rubbing alcohol that may be consumed; however, most producers make it uninhabitable by adding harmful substances such as methyl alcohol or gasoline to it. Methyl alcohol, which may be found in rubbing alcohol, has the potential to transform into formaldehyde, which can cause damage to your optical nerve and result in blindness in certain cases.
It is also possible that this alcohol could transform into a harmful ingredient that will cause damage to your liver.
So How do you Avoid Moonshine Blindness?
There are a number of precautions you may take to ensure your safety while brewing your own moonshine or while consuming moonshine from other sources.
Here are a handful of the most useful suggestions:
Tips for beginner moonshiners
If you are a first-time moonshiner, it is recommended that you get a high-quality moonshine kit. Each of these kits is produced from high-quality lead-free materials that will not result in any poisons being released into your produce. In addition, you should reject the first batch of moonshine that is created from each batch. The amount of moonshine you generate has an impact on this calculation. If you are new to moonshining, you can start by fractionating your batch according to temperature.
Tips for tasters
To guarantee that the moonshine you taste from friends does not include methanol, it is advisable to stick with reputable moonshiners who have experience in the industry. If a moonshiners’ kit has a lot of DIY alterations and appears to be a little out of place, it is definitely advisable not to consume too much of the mixture. It is also recommended that you avoid consuming rubbing alcohol. A large number of extra chemicals are commonly included in rubbing alcohol, making this liquid unfit for human ingestion.
Methanol – Will Moonshine Make You Blind?
When a commercial distiller manufactures moonshine (such as Ole’ Smokey or Sugarlands), a very serious safety risk is the possibility of manufacturing a deadly substance. In contrast to popular belief, professionally produced moonshine will not cause blindness or death or even a nasty hangover if some simple safety steps are observed and followed. What may cause someone to become blind from drinking moonshine will be discussed in greater detail in the following article, which will also show how a professional distiller can be absolutely, certainly, 100 percent certain that this will not happen.
Our distillation apparatus is intended solely for legal reasons, and the information contained in this paper is intended solely for educational purposes.
When it comes to moonshine, the dangerous stuff to look out for is methyl alcohol (methanol) (or any distilled spirit for that matter). Purified methanol is extremely hazardous, and it has been proven to cause blindness and even death in some cases. Pure methanol at concentrations as low as 10 mL can cause blindness, and as high as 30 mL can cause death in severe cases. A shot glass holds 30 milliliters of liquid, which is the same quantity of liquid as 30 milliliters.
How is Methanol Produced?
Methanol can be found in naturally occurring quantities in various fruits and vegetables. It is also possible that it will be created as an accidental consequence of the fermentation process. methanol is more likely to be found in spirits distilled from fruits such as apples, oranges, and grapes than in others. Methanol may be found in small amounts in both beer and wine.
According to studies, wine may contain as much as 329 mg/L of alcohol, whereas lager may have as little as 16 mg/L of alcohol. As a result, distilled wine (grappa, brandy, and so on) is possibly more harmful than grain-based spirits such as corn whiskey, for example.
Why is Methanol A Concern for Distillers?
So why is wine potentially dangerous to drink after it has been distilled, even though it contains methanol and does not pose a risk of methanol poisoning? The distinction is that the methanol concentration in a given amount of wine (say, 5 gallons) is uniformly distributed across the whole volume of wine. More than 5 gallons, or 28 bottles, would be required for someone to drink a quantity that may be considered potentially harmful. Because methanol has a lower boiling point than ethanol and water, it is concentrated at the beginning of the distillation process.
Methyl alcohol has a boiling point of around 148 degrees Fahrenheit, which is much lower than that of ethanol (the good stuff).
This is why professional distillers always discard the very first drop of shine that they make from each manufacturing run they undertake (more on this below).
- There could be as much as 8 milliliters of methyl alcohol in the first jar after distilling 5 gallons of wine with the abovementioned methanol concentration (329 mg/L), which could be potentially hazardous in high concentrations
- If the wine contained the abovementioned methanol concentration (329 mg/L) and was distilled, there could be as much as 5 gallon of methyl alcohol in the first jar after distilling
- If you scale this up to a 100-gallon batch that is distilled all at the same time in a large still, a commercial distiller may possibly be in for a very huge problem if the methanol is not dumped during the process. The distillation of 100 gallons of wine with 329 mg/L of methanol might result in a concentration of 40ml of methanol, which could be lethal if consumed in its whole
- Nevertheless, it is not recommended.
How to Remove Methanol from Moonshine
The temperature of the still is one way in which a commercial distiller can determine whether or not methanol is present. methanol is created by the still if anything is produced by the still before the wash temperature reaches 174 degrees. It will be discarded by a commercial distiller. Again, methanol boils at a lower temperature than ethanol and will concentrate at the start of the distillation process, just as it did previously. Commercial distillers have also discovered that just dumping a set quantity of product every batch, dependent on the batch size, is sufficient to keep things safe.
How much of the first product should be discarded:
- 1 gallon batch – discard the first 2/3 of a shot glass from the beginning of the batch
- 5 gallon batch – discard the first 1/3 of a pint jar from the beginning of the batch
- In a ten gallon batch, discard the first 3/4 of a pint jar of the mixture.
It’s a good idea to always follow this rule of thumb, regardless of the current temperature. Even though the first batch does not include methanol, the first batch that comes out of the still tastes and smells like rubbing alcohol. Nobody will be impressed by this, as it is by far the weakest material produced over the whole course of the show. It is impossible for a professional distiller to consume or sell the first product generated by a still. For more detail on this subject, please see our article ” Making Moonshine – The Dummies’ Guide “.
Check out the 10 most critical safety recommendations for distillers for much more information about safety.
Can Moonshine Make You Go Blind?
There is nothing intrinsically harmful about moonshine — or, at the very least, nothing that makes it any more deadly than any other alcoholic beverage. Due to the fact that it has not been aged, it is merely an extremely powerful alcohol with a very harsh flavor, or “kick,” when it is created properly. It is typically quite powerful, with proof levels as high as 150 proof, or around 75% alcohol.
What causes methanol in moonshine?
Methanol is a frequent contaminant in moonshine, which is normally produced by fermenting a “mash” of maize, sugar, and yeast for a few days and then distilling the resulting combination…..
Instead of being produced as a direct consequence of fermentation, methanol is produced as a result of the breakdown of pectin in corn.
Does eyesight improve after quitting drinking?
For example, after just 24 hours of not consuming alcohol, your blood sugar levels will return to normal and the impaired eyesight produced by alcohol use would be gone. “ As you abstain for a longer period of time, you may notice that your eyes get brighter and whiter as your body attempts to offset the damage and yellowing of the sclera — the white area of your eye.
Can a blind person ever see again?
People suffering with retinitis pigmentosa lose their vision if their photoreceptors cease to function. Some individuals with the uncommon illness are regaining their sight with the assistance of a retinal implant, sometimes known as a “bionic eye,” called Argus II.
Can cheap vodka make you blind?
A modest quantity of alcohol used in moderation is unlikely to create any difficulties, but excessive consumption can be harmful. In fact, if you consume the incorrect type of alcohol or consume an excessive amount of it over an extended period of time, it might cause you to go blind.
How do you not go blind from moonshine?
It is recommended that you drink in moderation to avoid alcohol poisoning or lasting liver damage. When drinking high-proof moonshine from skilled moonshiners, it is also advisable not to push yourself too far beyond your comfort zone. The effects of alcohol poisoning might be severe if your liver is incapable of breaking down the ethanol in your bloodstream.
How do I know if my moonshine is safe to drink?
According to folklore, one method of determining the purity of moonshine is to pour some onto a metal spoon and light it on fire. 6 Although lead is not harmful when burned with a blue flame, it is harmful when burned with a yellow or red flame, leading the ancient adage, “Lead burns red and makes you dead.”
Does moonshine go bad?
Overall, moonshine is not toxic in the same way that other distilled spirits are not. Unless you’re dealing with a flavored version of moonshine, this indicates that the product will last indefinitely (which can spoil as a result of its high sugar density).
How many beers is a shot of moonshine?
For beer, multiply 12 by 0.05 to get 0.6 fl oz. 0.96 divided by 0.6 is 1.6 beers. As a result, one shot of 128 proof moonshine has the equivalent of around 1.6 beers in alcohol.
What is proof of moonshine?
The majority of spirits sold in stores today will be measured in alcohol by volume (ABV) rather than proof. In the United States, the proportion of alcohol by volume is twice the amount of alcohol proof. This means that an average bottle of 40 percent ABV moonshine will be 80 proof on a scale of 100 points.
How do u know if ur going blind?
Alcohol by volume (ABV) will be used instead of proof in the majority of spirits sold in retail outlets nowadays. Across the United States, the proportion of alcohol by volume is twice the proof of the distilled spirit. This indicates that an average bottle of 40 percent ABV moonshine will be 80 proof on a scale from 100 to 1.
Why do blind people wear sunglasses?
A visually impaired person’s eyes are just as exposed to UV radiation as the eyes of somebody who can see. Sunglasses may be beneficial for legally blind persons who retain some degree of vision in order to avoid additional vision loss caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
How much moonshine will make you go blind?
“It’s extremely toxic, and even a small amount–just 10 milliliters of pure methanol–can cause blindness,” says Dr.
Bruce Goldberger, professor and director of toxicology at the University of Florida College of Medicine. “It’s extremely toxic, and even a small amount–just 10 milliliters of pure methanol–can cause blindness.”
How can moonshine cause blindness?
Methanol is a naturally occurring byproduct of the distillation process that is typically eliminated from liquor. However, errors do happen; for example, a shoddy’shiner can leave it in by accident. A still might also be made of inferior materials, allowing harmful compounds like as lead, which has been linked to blindness, to seep into the structure and cause damage.
Can blindness be cured?
While there is currently no treatment for blindness or macular degeneration, scientists have sped up the process of discovering a cure by viewing the inner workings of the eye and the illnesses that affect it at the cellular level, which has allowed them to find a solution faster.
What does moonshine do to your body?
Moonshine consumption involves the consumption of methanol. People will just become more inebriated as a result of this. Although not immediately dangerous, methanol’s toxic effects on the human body can be severe once it has been broken down by the body. A single drop of methanol (10 milliliters (ml) in the eye is all it takes to permanently damage the optic nerve and cause partial or total blindness.
Can you drink the heads of moonshine?
The heads aren’t worth retaining for drinking purposes and should be discarded immediately. Heads make up around 20-30 percent of the liquid recovered during a distillation cycle, on average.
Is home distilling dangerous?
Keeping the heads for drinking purposes is not worth it, and they should be thrown away. A typical distillation operation results in around 20-30 percent of the liquid recovered being head.
What is the difference between vodka and moonshine?
There isn’t much of a distinction between vodka and moonshine in terms of their physical properties. Both are unaged neutral spirits that are typically cut with water in order to increase volume and make the product more drinkable…. Moonshine, at least the commercial kinds, may readily be referred to as American vodka, in the same way as Poitin can be referred to as Irish vodka.
Can bad moonshine make you go blind?
Toxicity of Methanol In moonshine, methyl alcohol (methanol) is the nasty thing that may be found in high concentrations. Purified methanol is extremely hazardous, and it has been proven to cause blindness and even death in some cases.
The Dangers Of Moonshine
Because of the drinking culture that has grown in this century, liquor stores and bars have stocked their shelves with a broad selection of speciality liquors, beers, and wines to satisfy the needs of its customers. One of the newest crazes is the return of moonshine production and consumption. The government previously prohibited the booze of the Prohibition era due to a lack of controls and the fact that its brewers were evading taxes. So, what has changed in the last several years?
How Moonshine Got Its Name
A valid argument might be made to support the claim that the “Moonshine” that you see on the shelves of a liquor store is not in fact moonshine. The term for the corn whiskey originates from the distillers during prohibition, when alcohol was banned. People could only make it if they worked in the middle of the night under the light of the moon. This helped to conceal the smoke that would be emitted by the boiling liquor and made it more difficult for local law police to locate them. When you see bottles of moonshine available for legal purchase today, it is most likely referring to a white corn-whiskey that has not been aged in any way.
The fact is that legitimate moonshiners continue to operate in order to avoid taxes and generate a profit while operating outside of the regulatory framework of the federal government.
Methanol: The Toxic Side Of Moonshine
If you’re like most people, you’ve probably heard horror stories about the hazards of illegally brewed booze like moonshine. Methanol, on the other hand, is the genuine perpetrator of these true stories. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, is produced as a byproduct of the distillation procedure. In addition to serving as a primary element in gasoline, insecticides, paint thinners, and other products, the use of methanol should not be taken lightly.
The Explosive Power Of Moonshine
During the fermentation process of any alcoholic beverage, methanol and ethanol, which are both considered to be safe for consumption, are released. Both are very combustible and have the potential to explode if not properly sealed and ventilated throughout the distillation process. In the event of an ethanol gas leak in the still, which is used to process moonshine, a single spark could ignite the ethanol gas, resulting in an explosion. A tank that is boiling off the hazardous alcohol might quickly collapse if there is no ventilation.” Derek Grout was inspecting a collecting tank of his state-of-the-art copper-pot still, which was housed in an aluminum shed surrounded by postcard orchards in Columbia County, New York.
“I’m just sort of grateful we didn’t murder ourselves,” he remarked with a giggle.
— Toby Cecchini
Consuming Methanol In Moonshine
When you take your first taste of methanol, you won’t be able to recognize its potentially hazardous nature. People will just become more inebriated as a result of this. Although not immediately dangerous, methanol’s toxic effects on the human body can be severe once it has been broken down by the body. A single drop of methanol (10 milliliters (ml) in the eye is all it takes to permanently damage the optic nerve and cause partial or total blindness. Methanol in concentrations of 30 mL or more is deadly.
Methanol, even in little amounts spread across several beverages, can cause lasting injury or death if consumed in excess of 10 milliliters (ml).
There is no way to tell if illicit alcohol includes methanol, of course, unless there is government control.
A sip of methanol has no discernible harm, and this is true even after a few sips. People will just become more inebriated as a result of this policy. Although not immediately dangerous, methanol’s toxic effects on the human body can be severe once it has been broken down by the liver. Only 10 milliliters (mL) of methanol is required for irreversible optic nerve injury, resulting in partial, if not total, vision loss. Methanol in concentrations of 30 mL or more is fatal. A common shot glass in the United States carries 40 milliliters, as a point of reference In the event that someone consumes less than 10 ml of methanol, the most severe side effect they will suffer is a hangover (albeit, quite possibly the worst hangover of their life).
However, while there are techniques in place today to remove the harmful alcohol that is visually indistinguishable from water, some illegal Moonshiners may inject methanol back in to give their product a higher strength than is necessary.
There is no way to tell whether illegal alcohol includes methanol if there is no regulation in place.
- Cooper Smith graduated with honors from Full Sail University with a Bachelor’s degree in Writing for Entertainment. Even though he was first drawn to a career in television, he became aware of a problem in his neighborhood and felt motivated to do more. Now, he employs his expertise to reach out to those who may be in need of assistance and to raise public awareness of the difficulties that our society is now grappling with. Cooper enjoys exploring new places when he is not seated in front of a computer.
Moonshine’s Gone Legit But It Still Is Dangerous
Photograph by Scott Olson / Getty Images Home-distilled moonshine, formerly a closely guarded secret of Appalachian backwoods, is still in existence to this day. In fact, it is now officially legal. “White lightning,” as it is referred as, was originally considered an illegal and dangerous chemical by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, but it is now approved for sale and controlled by the federal government in select states in the United States. Several other states, including Alabama, Georgia, and Kentucky, have followed suit.
Many believe that over a million illegal moonshine stills are currently operating throughout the United States, making the manufacture of clear, high-potency drink more ubiquitous and pervasive than at any other time in history.
What Is Moonshine?
When you make moonshine, you’re fermenting a sugar source to generate ethanol, which is also called as “hooch” or “homebrew.” The traditional method of making moonshine is to boil maize and sugar together. A distillation procedure is used to remove the alcohol from the mash after it has been fermented. One significant distinction between moonshine and other alcoholic beverages such as whiskey or bourbon is that moonshine is not matured. It is the end product of this process that creates an alcoholic beverage with a high proportion of alcohol, often several times larger than 100 proof (50 percent), such as white whiskey.
That is, the ability to purchase commercially made, all-copper moonshine stills on the internet has removed a significant amount of the danger associated with the moonshine distillation process.
Plenty of moonshine is still being produced in stills constructed from vehicle radiator components and other potentially hazardous items.
Impact of Moonshine
When you make moonshine, you’re fermenting a sugar source to generate ethanol, which is known as “hooch” or “homebrew.” According to tradition, maize and sugar are used to make moonshine. A distillation technique is used to remove the alcohol from the mash. In comparison to other alcoholic beverages such as whiskey or bourbon, moonshine does not have an ageing process. It is the end result of this process that produces white whiskey, which includes a high amount of alcohol that is several times more than 100 proof (50 percent).
That is, the ability to purchase commercially made, all-copper moonshine stills on the internet has removed a significant amount of the danger associated with the moonshine distillation procedure.
This does not imply that all moonshine is now safe to consume, notwithstanding the progress that has been made. In stills built from vehicle radiator components and other potentially hazardous materials, a large amount of moonshine is still being produced.
Because illegal moonshine is manufactured in improvised stills, it remains a potentially lethal substance. It has the potential to be hazardous on two levels: during the distillation process and when it is consumed.
The distillation process itself generates flammable alcohol vapors, which are released during the operation. The presence of flammable vapors is one of the primary reasons that moonshine stills are nearly always situated outside, despite the fact that this makes them more visible to law authorities. The danger of vaporous explosions is too large to be contained within the building. When it comes to eating the liquid, if the end result has a proof more than 100, the moonshine itself is incredibly flammable and may be quite hazardous.
However, while the flammability of the distilling process and the product itself is a concern, more people have died from drinking moonshine than have perished in still explosions owing to the poisons in the brew, according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Despite the fact that the majority of stills in use today are of the all-copper form, there are still a significant number of old-fashioned handcrafted stills extant. Traditionally, antique stills have used automobile radiators in the distillation process, and they are more likely to contain lead soldering, which can contaminate the moonshine.
- Methanol tainting may develop in bigger quantities of distilled moonshine, and it is especially common in older batches.
- The greater the batch size, the greater the amount of methanol.
- Methanol is extremely dangerous and can result in blindness or even death if inhaled.
- Christopher Holstege, a physician affiliated with the University of Virginia Health System, conducted a study in 2004 in which he tested 48 samples of moonshine obtained by law enforcement from various stills.
How to Test for Purity
According to folklore, one method of determining the purity of moonshine is to pour some onto a metal spoon and light it on fire. Although lead is not harmful when burned with a blue flame, it is harmful when burned with a yellow or red flame, leading the ancient adage, “Lead burns red and makes you dead.” The spoon burning approach, on the other hand, is not fully dependable. Other poisons that may be present in the brew, such as methanol, which burns with a bright blue flame that is difficult to notice, are not detected by this method.
Public health experts are afraid that moonshine poisoning in unwell people may go unnoticed since most healthcare practitioners regard it to be an outmoded practice from years ago.
History of Moonshine
As far as historians can tell, the practice of manufacturing alcohol has been present since the dawn of civilization. Moonshine, in particular, is said to have been brought into the United States by Scotch-Irish immigrants in the late 1700s, notably in the southern Appalachian region. According to Appalachian anthropologists, the Scotch-Irish immigrants who relocated to the region in the late 1700s and early 1800s carried with them their practice of home brewing as well as their formula for high-potency hooch, which was popular during the time period.
As a result, it may be kept concealed from prying eyes such as the police or hungry neighbors “Jason Sumich, Department of Anthropology, Appalachian State University, believes this is correct.
The side of the antique clay jars was frequently marked with the letters “XXX.” Supposedly, each “X” reflected the number of times the drink had gone through the distillation process before it was bottled.
Fact or Fiction: Can Drinking Moonshine Cause Blindness? on MoonshineDVD.com
I guess just about everyone has heard the old statement that drinking moonshine may induce blindness. This is a rumor that you’ve undoubtedly heard about before, even if you don’t directly know someone who has gone blind after drinking moonshine. Nevertheless, is there any truth to this claim, or is it simply a tall-tale fabrication spread to deter moonshiners from their activities?
Can Moonshine Cause Blindness?
The simple answer is that drinking moonshine can, in fact, cause permanent vision loss. Having said that, moonshine that is produced properly, utilizing a copper still and the appropriate safety procedures, will avoid the likelihood of this happening. A person who becomes blind after drinking moonshine has done so due to improper preparation of the beverage, which is why it is critical to observe some basic safety precautions as well as common sense when distilling your moonshine.
The methanol component in moonshine is one of the reasons why some people have gone blind after consuming the substance. Each and every batch of moonshine contains methanol, which is related to ethanol. When ingested, methanol is a very poisonous and strong substance that can cause visual nerve damage or even death if not handled properly. It is possible to die with a single dose of this very deadly chemical substance. Methylethanol is a byproduct produced during the distillation of an alcoholic beverage.
Small trace amounts of methanol will not cause any worry; but, significant amounts of methanol may accumulate over time and reach dangerous levels of concentration.
Drinking moonshine that has been contaminated with methanol would most likely result in a harsh taste that is difficult to appreciate. Remove any moonshine that has a flavor like this and distill another batch just to be on the safe side, says the author.
How To Protect Against Methanol
Moonshine’s high methanol level is one of the reasons why some people have reported going blind after consuming the liquor. Each and every batch of moonshine contains methanol, which is related to ethanol in both structure and composition. The chemical methanol is a very strong and deadly substance that, if ingested, can cause damage to the visual nerve or possibly cause death. It is possible to die from a single dose of this very deadly toxin. In the process of distilling alcohol, methanol is produced as a by-product.
Even minute traces of methanol will not be a cause for alarm; nevertheless, substantial amounts of methanol may accumulate over time and reach dangerous levels.
Drinking moonshine that has been contaminated with methanol will most likely result in a bitter taste that is difficult to tolerate.
Will moonshine make you go blind?
The simple answer is that it is possible to go blind as a result of drinking moonshine. Moonshine and other home-distilled liquors have been linked to blindness in the past, and this is a legitimate concern. However, it is vital to distinguish between the causes of blindness and the alcohol distillation process itself. If you’re drinking moonshine, the answer is yes. Methanol is currently the most prevalent cause of blindness associated with alcohol consumption. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, has been shown to cause damage to the visual nerve and even death when used in high doses.
- Methanoltoxicity is defined as poisoning caused by methanol.
- Reduced eyesight may appear as early as twelve hours following exposure to the irritant.
- How can moonshine cause you to go blind is explained here.
- Methanol is formed during the fermentation of grains or fruits that are rich in pectin, which is used in the production of alcohol.
- What is the best way to tell if my moonshine is safe to consume?
Generally speaking, if it burns with a blue flame, it is harmless; but, if it burns with a yellow or red flame, it contains lead, resulting in the ancient phrase, “Lead burns red and makes you dead.”
The History of Poisoned Alcohol Includes an Unlikely Culprit: The U.S. Government
This week, there were two bizarre outbreaks of death by drinking that grabbed headlines: scores of people died in Mozambique after drinking potentially poisoned beer, while another huge group died in India after drinking tainted whiskey. The concept of ” poisoned ” or contaminated unlicensed alcohol may strike American readers as something that only people in other parts of the world need to be concerned about. However, the United States has a long history of deaths from poisoned alcohol — and that’s not even counting the thousands of deaths per year that can be traced to alcohol poisoning from supposedly safe, legal drinks even today.
- Methanol (wood alcohol) is found in a variety of industrial goods, such as formaldehyde and gasoline, and is both cheaper and stronger than ethanol (the alcohol you drink).
- Either intentionally marketed to consumers to lower the expense of manufacturing alcohol or mistakenly consumed by a well-intentioned but uninformed moonshiner, consuming methanol can result in blindness, respiratory paralysis, or death if consumed in large quantities.
- However, there was one significant difference between alcohol-related deaths during Prohibition and those that are currently in the news: in the 1920s, the United States government was, in a sense, accountable for the poison.
- Despite the new legislation, unexpectedly, many resumed drinking.
Despite the fact that industrial alcohol had been “denatured” for years by the addition of toxic or unappetizing chemicals to it — the idea was originally to prevent people from evading beverage taxes by drinking commercial-use alcohol instead — it was still possible to purify the liquid so that it was safe to consume.
- 10, 1927, issue: that year, a new recipe for denaturing industrial-grade alcohol was created, thereby doubling the poisonousness of the product as a result of its denaturing properties.
- (In case you weren’t aware, “blind drink” isn’t simply a figure of phrase; it’s a real thing.) The notion of making alcohol lethal when making it illegal had failed to deter drinkers was not universally embraced, with New Jersey Senator Edward I.
- Wayne B.
- “The individual who consumes this industrial booze is committing suicide on purpose…
- At a later date that year, Seymour M.
As TIME magazine wrote after a 1928 event in which 33 individuals died in Manhattan in three days, largely as a result of drinking wood alcohol: “Everyone expected the involvement and help of Federal forces, who had been active in Manhattan recently and were expected to intervene.” But no one could have predicted what transpired in the end.
“Inasmuch as wood alcohol is not a beverage but a recognized poison (analogous to prussic acid or iodine) and its use and sale are not prohibited by any Federal statutes, we respectfully report that the subject matter is for the consideration of the State authorities rather than of the Federal authorities in those specific instances.” The selling of poisons is regulated by state law, and those who use or sell poisons improperly are subject to criminal prosecution.
After Prohibition was repealed in 1933, there was no longer any need for Americans to put their lives in danger by consuming what may turn out to be lethal methanol.
However, as this week’s news reveals, the threat of “poison hooch” continues to loom large. Write to Lily Rothman at [email protected] She will respond.